External Focus Affects Drop Jump Performance: Focusing on Different Aims and Words of Instruction
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Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Joint Graduate School in Science of School Education, Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Hyogo, Japan
Faculty of Health and Sports Science, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
Faculty of Education, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan
Submission date: 2022-06-02
Acceptance date: 2023-02-16
Online publication date: 2023-07-06
Corresponding author
Ryohei Hayashi   

Faculty of Education, Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu, 5011193, Gifu, Japan
Journal of Human Kinetics 2023;89:33–41
Attentional focus strategies eliciting external focus of attention effectively enhance drop jump (DJ) performance, however, their effects vary depending on the words used for the instructions. We aimed to examine the effects of different words on DJ performance using instructions eliciting external focus to minimize contact time (CT) or maximize jump height (JH). Twenty collegiate athletes performed DJs from a 30-cm platform after receiving one of the four instructions: two instructions (COND 1 and 2) about minimizing CT, and two instructions (COND 3 and 4) about maximizing JH. The reactive strength index (RSI), CT, JH, relative peak vertical ground reaction force (vGRF), and leg stiffness (kvert) were compared between conditions using repeated-measures analysis of variance. There was no significant main effect of conditions on the RSI, relative peak vGRF, and kvert (p > 0.05). CT was significantly shorter under CONDs 1 and 2 than COND 3 (p < 0.05); JH was significantly higher under COND 3 than CONDs 1 and 2 (p < 0.05), and under COND 4 than COND 1 (p < 0.05). When using attentional focus strategies in DJ, it is necessary to use different words and purposes according to the players' tasks.
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