Differences in Situational Patterns During Change of Direction Movements Greater than 90° in Youth Male and Female Soccer Players
Reed Ferber 5,6,7
Kati Pasanen 1,2,5,8,9
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Integrative Neuromuscular Sport Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Sport Injury Prevention Research Center, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
Tonal Strength Institute, San Francisco, USA.
Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
McCaig Institute for Bone and Joint Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
Running Injury Clinic, Calgary, Canada.
Faculty of Nursing, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada.
Tampere Research Center of Sports Medicine, UKK Institute, Tampere, Finland.
Submission date: 2023-01-31
Acceptance date: 2023-06-22
Online publication date: 2023-09-05
Corresponding author
Aki-Matti Alanen   

Integrative Neuromuscular Sport Performance Laboratory, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Dr NW, T2N 1N4, Calgary, Canada
Journal of Human Kinetics 2023;89:149–160
Change of direction (COD) maneuvers in soccer create tactical advantages, but also expose the player to an increased risk of injury. COD ability is commonly tested with pre-planned drills including cuts greater than 90°. These tests do not take into consideration positional differences players encounter during games. This case-series study used principal component analysis (PCA) to examine situational differences during COD movements between playing positions in youth soccer games. For each of the four teams included (26 females, 27 males), one game was analyzed using video-analysis. Two independent reviewers identified situational patterns and a PCA was used to examine differences between playing positions. Three principal components explained 89% of the variation in the data and were categorized as the total quantity of CODs, attacking/goal-scoring and defensive reacting types of CODs. One-way ANOVA on the individual principal component (PC) scores showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between centre midfielders, goalkeepers, and centrebacks in the quantity of CODs (PC1), and between wingers and fullbacks and centre backs in attacking/goal-scoring CODs (PC2), whereas PC3 was not different between playing positions. Differences between playing positions suggest that training and testing protocols in soccer could be enhanced to better match the individual and playing position-based needs.
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