Prediction of Exercise Tolerance in the Severe and Extreme Intensity Domains by a Critical Power Model
More details
Hide details
Physical Effort Laboratory, Sports Center, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil.
Human Performance Research Group, Center for Health Sciences and Sport, Santa Catarina State University, Florianopolis, Brazil.
Submission date: 2023-01-30
Acceptance date: 2023-04-05
Online publication date: 2023-09-05
Corresponding author
Thiago Pereira Ventura   

Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil
Journal of Human Kinetics 2023;89:113–122
This study aimed to assess the predictive capability of different critical power (CP) models on cycling exercise tolerance in the severe- and extreme-intensity domains. Nineteen cyclists (age: 23.0 ± 2.7 y) performed several time-toexhaustion tests (Tlim) to determine CP, finite work above CP (W'), and the highest constant work rate at which maximal oxygen consumption was attained (IHIGH). Hyperbolic power-time, linear power-inverse of time, and work-time models with three predictive trials were used to determine CP and W'. Modeling with two predictive trials of the CP work-time model was also used to determine CP and W'. Actual exercise tolerance of IHIGH and intensity 5% above IHIGH (IHIGH+5%) were compared to those predicted by all CP models. Actual IHIGH (155 ± 30 s) and IHIGH+5% (120 ± 26 s) performances were not different from those predicted by all models with three predictive trials. Modeling with two predictive trials overestimated Tlim at IHIGH+5% (129 ± 33 s; p = 0.04). Bland-Altman plots of IHIGH+5% presented significant heteroscedasticity by all CP predictions, but not for IHIGH. Exercise tolerance in the severe and extreme domains can be predicted by CP derived from three predictive trials. However, this ability is impaired within the extreme domain.
Alexander, A. M., Didier, K. D., Hammer, S. M., Dzewaltowski, A. C., Kriss, K. N., Lovoy, G. M., ... & Barstow, T. J. (2019). Exercise tolerance through severe and extreme intensity domains. Physiological Reports, 7(5), e14014.
Black, M. I., Jones, A. M., Blackwell, J. R., Bailey, S. J., Wylie, L. J., McDonagh, S. T., ... & Vanhatalo, A. (2017). Muscle metabolic and neuromuscular determinants of fatigue during cycling in different exercise intensity domains. Journal of Applied Physiology, 122(3), 446–459.
Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1999). Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 8(2), 135–160.
Burnley, M., & Jones, A. M. (2007). Oxygen uptake kinetics as a determinant of sports performance. European Journal of Sport Science, 7(2), 63–79.
Caputo, F., & Denadai, B. S. (2008). The highest intensity and the shortest duration permitting attainment of maximal oxygen uptake during cycling: effects of different methods and aerobic fitness level. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 103(1), 47–57.
Chidnok, W., Dimenna, F. J., Bailey, S. J., Wilkerson, D. P., Vanhatalo, A., & Jones, A. M. (2013). Effects of pacing strategy on work done above critical power during high-intensity exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 45(7), 1377–1385.
De Pauw, K., Roelands, B., Cheung, S. S., De Geus, B., Rietjens, G., & Meeusen, R. (2013). Guidelines to classify subject groups in sport-science research. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 8(2), 111–122.
Hill, D. W. (1993). The critical power concept. Sports Medicine, 16(4), 237–254.
Iannetta, D., Zhang, J., Murias, J. M., & Aboodarda, S. J. (2022). Neuromuscular and perceptual mechanisms of fatigue accompanying task failure in response to moderate-, heavy-, severe-, and extreme-intensity cycling. Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985), 133(2), 323–334.
Jones, A.M., Wilkerson, D.P., Vanhatalo, A., & Burnley, M. (2008). Influence of pacing strategy on O2 uptake and exercise tolerance. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 18(5), 615–626.
Jones, A. M., Grassi, B., Christensen, P. M., Krustrup, P., Bangsbo, J., & Poole, D. C. (2011). Slow component of VO2 kinetics: mechanistic bases and practical applications. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 43(11), 2046–62.
Karsten, B., Hopker, J., Jobson, S. A., Baker, J., Petrigna, L., Klose, A., & Beedie, C. (2017). Comparison of inter-trial recovery times for the determination of critical power and W’ in cycling. Journal of Sports Sciences, 35(14), 1420–1425.
Kuipers, H., Verstappen, F. T. J., Keizer, H. A., Geurten, P., & Van Kranenburg, G. (1985). Variability of aerobic performance in the laboratory and its physiologic correlates. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 6(04), 197–201.
Laursen, P. B., Francis, G. T., Abbiss, C. R., Newton, M. J., & Nosaka, K. (2007). Reliability of time-to-exhaustion versus time-trial running tests in runners. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 39(8), 1374–1379.
Ludbrook, J. (2010). Confidence in Altman–Bland plots: a critical review of the method of differences. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 37(2), 143–149.
Maturana, F. M., Fontana, F. Y., Pogliaghi, S., Passfield, L., & Murias, J. M. (2018). Critical power: how different protocols and models affect its determination. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 21(7), 742–747.
Monod, H., & Scherrer, J. (1965). The work capacity of a synergic muscular group. Ergonomics, 8(3), 329–338.
Morgan, P. T., Black, M. I., Bailey, S. J., Jones, A. M., & Vanhatalo, A. (2019). Road cycle TT performance: Relationship to the power-duration model and association with FTP. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37(8), 902–910.
Moritani, T., Nagata, A., Devries, H. A., & Muro, M. (1981). Critical power as a measure of physical work capacity and anaerobic threshold. Ergonomics, 24(5), 339–350.
Moseley, L., & Jeukendrup, A. E. (2001). The reliability of cycling efficiency. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33(4), 621–627.
Muniz-Pumares, D., Karsten, B., Triska, C., & Glaister, M. (2019). Methodological approaches and related challenges associated with the determination of critical power and curvature constant. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 33(2), 584–596. 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002977.
Murgatroyd, S. R., Ferguson, C., Ward, S. A., Whipp, B. J., & Rossiter, H. B. (2011). Pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics as a determinant of high-intensity exercise tolerance in humans. Journal of applied physiology, 110(6), 1598–1606.
Nimmerichter, A., Novak, N., Triska, C., Prinz, B., and Breese, B. C. (2017). Validity of treadmill-derived critical speed on predicting 5000-meter track-running performance. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 31(3), 706–714.
Nimmerichter, A., Prinz, B., Gumpenberger, M., Heider, S., & Wirth, K. (2020). Field-Derived Power–Duration Variables to Predict Cycling Time-Trial Performance. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 15(8), 1095–1102.
Pethick, J., Winter, S. L., & Burnley, M. (2020). Physiological evidence that the critical torque is a phase transition, not a threshold. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 52(11), 2390.
Poole, D. C., Burnley, M., Vanhatalo, A., Rossiter, H. B., & Jones, A. M. (2016). Critical power: an important fatigue threshold in exercise physiology. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 48(11), 2320.
Robergs, R. A., Dwyer, D., & Astorino, T. (2010). Recommendations for improved data processing from expired gas analysis indirect calorimetry. Sports Medicine, 40(2), 95–111.
Turnes, T., de Aguiar, R. A., de Oliveira Cruz, R. S., Pereira, K., Salvador, A. F., & Caputo, F. (2016). High-intensity interval training in the boundaries of the severe domain: Effects on sprint and endurance performance. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(12), 944–951.