The Effects of EEG Biofeedback Training on Visual Reaction Time in Judo Athletes
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Institute of Sport Sciences, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland.
Department of Oral Surgery, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland
Department of Laryngology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Medical University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland.
Department of Physiological and Medical Sciences, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland.
Submission date: 2023-07-17
Acceptance date: 2023-10-11
Online publication date: 2023-10-27
Corresponding author
Adam Maszczyk   

Institute of Sport Sciences, The Jerzy Kukuczka Academy of Physical Education, Katowice, Poland, Poland
Journal of Human Kinetics 2023;89:247–258
The aim of the study was to expand the current knowledge on the effects of EEG biofeedback training on the reaction time of judo athletes, as well as to develop an optimal EEG training protocol in terms of the number of sessions and their duration that would significantly improve the reaction time of athletes. The study included 24 male athletes from the national team of the Polish Judo Association. The selected group was randomly divided into two subgroups: experimental and control. The study was conducted in four cycles varying in terms of frequency and duration of neurofeedback (NFB) sessions, both in the control and experimental groups. In the experimental group, each training cycle consisted of 15 sessions, followed by a four-week break. The effects of NFB training on the visual reaction time of judo athletes were evaluated using computerized simple and complex reaction time tests along with selected trials of the Vienna Test System (VTS). Following NFB training according to the theta/beta1 protocol, while maintaining appropriate duration and frequency of individual training sessions, statistically significant improvements in reaction times to visual stimuli of athletes, both in simple and complex tasks, were observed in the experimental group. No such changes were found in the control group. The greatest improvement in reaction times was observed in complex tasks, indicating the high effectiveness of EEG biofeedback training in enhancing this ability.
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